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Pull factors / push factors

Wikis > Pull factors / push factors

Pull factors and push factors refer to the motives to migrate. Push factors are those associated with the area of origin, while pull factors are those that are associated with the area of destination.

Motives for migration are often economic, and pull factors tend to be higher wages and greater demand for labour in the area of destination. Pull factors also include better living conditions, political and/or religious freedom, better medical care, security, and other advantages.

Push factors include overpopulation, the absence of economic opportunity, not enough jobs, famine/drought, loss of wealth, poor medical care, intolerance towards a certain cultural group and other unfavourable conditions. Social and physical reasons (such as, respectively, persecution and natural disasters) tend to involve forced migration.


Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.271.

Levin Institute – The State University of New York. “Pull Factors in Migration.” Globalization 101. Online: (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

Riley, Chris. “Study Note – Push and Pull Factors behind Migration.” tutor2u, September 08, 2011. Online: (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

Rosenberg, Matt. “Push-Pull Factors.” About Education. Online: (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

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